In his 1905 paper on the light-quantum hypothesis and photoelectric effect, Einstein quantized the radiation field, where Max Planck had only quantized energy in his virtual oscillators. Einstein was first to see that electromagnetic radiation is particulate. And in his very next paper he proved the existence of atoms. In that one year he saw both matter and energy as particulate and how they are converted into one another, E = mc^{2}.

Einstein thus saw that both the material and the energetic universe have discrete and discontinuous properties! On a careful reading of his 1905 “photoelectric effect” paper, we can see that Einstein was already concerned about faster-than-light actions, thirty years before his Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paper popularized the mysteries and paradoxes of quantum nonlocality and entanglement. We hope to show that virtually all of today’s controversies in the interpretations of quantum mechanics can be resolved by seeing these problems through Einstein’s eyes.